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What are disasters and how to manage them? (Contd...)

According to the modern concept Disaster Management is conceived as a four-phase approach in which it is based upon four distinct components: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

·         Mitigation involves reducing or eliminating the likelihood or the consequences of a hazard, or both. Mitigation seeks to "treat" the hazard such that it impacts society to a lesser degree.

·         Preparedness involves equipping people who may be impacted by a disaster or who may be able to help those impacted with the tools to increase their chance of survival and to minimize their financial and other losses.

·         Response involves taking action to reduce or eliminate the impact of disasters that have occurred or are currently occurring, in order to prevent further suffering, financial loss, or a combination of both. "Relief", a term commonly used in international disaster management, is one component of response.

·         Recovery involves returning victims' lives back to a normal state following the impact of disaster consequences. The recovery phase generally begins after the immediate response has ended, and can persist for months or years thereafter.

[Damon P. Coppola, Introduction to International Disaster Management,   ELSEVIER. 2007.]

Mitigation and Preparedness both includes three important components: public education, warning systems, risk mapping which divided into different parts with respect to the major divisions.

Existing Disaster Management Scenario

The existing Disaster Management (DM) approach in India is centralized in nature and hierarchy-dependent. After mobilizing the whole resources into the effort of disaster management, communication between the on field personnel and the authority  are never so useful with the present methods, is always added delay and disturbance & interruption, overload of flow of information at right time and right place. To overcome the difficulties of this present scenario, it is an urgent need for a user-centric,  partly-decentralized, partly hierarchy-independent emergency communication network whose approach provides the end user to be able to share resource and information effectively.


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