Problems of Communication Management in Rural Areas during Disasters
In rural India, the commonly used communication systems, though sparsely available, are PSTN, WLL & GSM/CDMA and most of the areas are without any infrastructure of such, added with lack of power supply to run them.
So, in the former case, disaster occurrence may cause complete break down of the existing communication system and the restoration of such system at that the situation becomes difficult, and takes longer time. So, an emergency communication network is required which can be rapidly deployable and flexible to work with. the demand is same for the later case, i.e., the place where no existing communication network is available.
1. A Communication Network that can be
2. Communication Medium should be Wireless.
3. Operation in Non-electrified Area.
4. Communication Network should be able to collect information from decentralized
heterogeneous information pool.
Operation Scenario of the Communication Network
As in the general scenario of the disaster affected area, and for rapid deployment and operation of the proposed communication network, the affected area is divided into Three different Zones.
The Central region of the zone is defined as Core Area, where communication infrastructure has been totally destroyed. The relief workers can reach this zone with great difficulty. In the Core Area, the relief workers can reach with wireless handheld devices to form Ad hoc/Infrastructure based communication network groups.
The next zone is defined as the “non - existent communication infrastructure, but human accessible zone.” The information about the core area gathered by the said groups can be transmitted to the next zone through wireless access points with high gain antennas.
The third zone is partly affected area where conventional communication network is partly available. In order to establish communication in partly affected area we can use WiMax technology, which conveys the information from the previous zone to the outside world. After this zone the communication network is fully available.